Why didn't you include these ingredients in IN-perium?

Taurine: This is a popular supplement ingredient, however the best evidence we could find supporting any beneficial effect from Taurine came from one really tiny, poorly designed study. The aforementioned study [3 ] showed increased maximal effort athletic performance and reduced oxidative damage to muscle cell DNA, but the study was pre-to-post without a placebo group and had n of 11. Other research shows that Taurine improves blood flow in diabetics and increases insulin sensitivity in mice[4 ]. It also improves cardiovascular function and prevents oxidative damage in iron overloaded mice[5 ]. Taurine supplementation appears to depress platelet aggregation in humans[6 ]. Basically, the evidence seems to suggest that Taurine supplementation could offer health benefits in some circumstance, but we don’t see any robust evidence that suggests it would provide significant benefit to healthy humans, and we don’t want to include any ingredients without good reason.

Arginine: Citrulline can be converted to Arginine as needed, rendering Arginine redundant. Also, there is far less research supporting any outcome based efficacy of arginine as a supplement than there is for Citrulline. There is no reason to include this since we already include Citrulline.

Vitamin B12: There’s research noting a correlation between B12 supplementation and increased cancer risk in men[7 ]. This is ‘survey science’, but the hazards ratio 95% CI is 1.32 to 2.97, which potentially indicates serious correlation, and that makes us think we should exercise the precautionary principle here and exclude this ingredient, especially since IN-Perium is not intended to be a vitamin drink.

Theacrine: This compound is related to caffeine, and popular in some supplements, but we could not find efficacy for any particular unique benefits. Compared to caffeine, greater dosages of Theacrine are required to obtain a stimulatory effect, and at lesser dosages it acts as a sedative[8 ]. The volume of research on Theacrine is also much lower than for caffeine, so inclusion seemed unwise.

Orthinine: This chemical is converted into L-Citrulline and the body of research on Orthinine seems to show inferior efficacy to L-Citrulline supplementation. For example, in one study[9 ] that demonstrated a diminishment of reported fatigue with orthinine supplementation, the male cohort failed to demonstrate improved athletic performance versus placebo, whereas in a similar study on L-Citrulline[1 ], a larger cohort of male subjects did demonstrate significantly improved athletic performance versus placebo. Furthermore, the performance improvement in the Citrulline study [1 ] was more relevant to our application given that the exercise in question was weight training, as compared to the cycling ergometer testing in the study on Orthinine. Since IN-Perium already provides L-CItrulline, Orthinine appears somewhere between redundant and pointless.

Tyrosine: This appears to improve cognition during periods of prolonged sleep deprivation[10 ] and for people exposed to extremely cold temperatures[11 ]. Tyrosine combined with a protein shake has been shown to improve cognitive performance when compared to a placebo beverage containing 255 calories of sugar water, in a study[12 ] apparently designed to ensure that no one learned anything useful about the effects of Tyrosine in isolation. Tyrosine has been shown to improve cycling performance in warm conditions[13 ] and also to fail to improve cycling performance in warm conditions[14 ] at the same exact dosage. There is no reliable evidence that Tyrosine would provide a benefit useful to the X3 audience, so it is not included.